A collective agreement that requires members of a particular group of workers to be or become members of a particular union. A pre-entry agreement is an agreement that prohibits an employer from hiring an employee concerned unless the employee is already a member of the union in question. A post-entry agreement requires employees to join the specified union within a certain period of time after the start of employment. Of these three types of union agreements, the agency-workshop contract allows the greatest flexibility. Workers may choose to remain non-members of the specified union as long as they pay the necessary dues to the union. Although closed stores were declared illegal in the United States under the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, they still exist in practice; however, they are not included in the contracts. They are used by employers who depend on unions when hiring, or by industries that only employ workers for a short period of time (e.g. B, dockers and construction workers). In such cases, employers can search for candidates by contacting the unions` hiring rooms, but they are free to recruit elsewhere. The famous English tort case Rookes v. Barnard was about a closed-door agreement.
 Such agreements attract attention for a variety of reasons and are considered in some quarters to be a violation of the LRA`s freedom of association provisions and Article 18 of the Constitution, which deals with the right to join or leave groups of one`s choice. The U.S. government does not allow union fees in any federal agency, whether or not state law permits it. The European Court of Human Rights has held that Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides for a “negative right to association or, in other words, a right not to be forced to join an association”, in the case of Sørensen and Rasmussen v. Denmark (2006). Therefore, closed transactions are illegal under Article 11 of the Convention. Dunn and Gennard found 111 cases of layoffs in the UK when launching a closed shop involving 325 people,:125 and they explained: “While supporters of the closed store may argue that around 325 redundancies are a relatively small number compared to the total population covered by closed stores, critics would consider the figure substantial and argue that one dismissal is one too many.” :126 With regard to the workshop closed before entering, they stated: “Its raison d`être is to exclude people from employment by denying them union membership.” :132 By the 1930s, the closed workshop had become a jointly negotiated agreement to protect workers` organizations. These and other methods became known as “union security.” Less extreme than the closed store is the union store, where the employer can hire a worker who is not a member of a union if the new worker joins the union within a certain period of time […].